Would like to show some best and most commonly used shortcut keys in Microsoft Excel that can be used in 2003-2010 version. To find all the shortcut key, searching in the “Help” by using the keywords -> Keyboard shortcuts.

Move around the Worksheets

Home Move to the beginning of the row
Ctrl+Home Move to the beginning of the workaheet
Ctrl+End Move to the last cell on the worksheet, in the bottom-most used row of the rightmost used column
Ctrl+Arrow Move to edge of region
Ctrl+Page Up

Ctrl+Page Down

Move to the pervious sheet

Move to the next sheet

Ctrl+Tab Move to next open workbook

Quick Data Selection

Ctrl+* Select current region
Ctrl+A Select all cells
Ctrl+Shift+End Select from active cell to last call in used range
Ctrl+Shift+Home Select from active cell to A1
Ctrl+Spacebar

Shift+Spacebar

Select columns

Select rows

Shift+arrow key Extend the selection by one cell
Ctrl+Shift+arrow key Extend the selection to the last nonblank cell in the same column or row as the active cell

Instant Cell Formatting

Ctrl+1 Format Cells
Ctrl+B Bold
Ctrl+U Underline

Efficient Windows Operation

Alt+Tab Switch to the next program
Ctrl+Esc Display the Windows Start menu
PrtScr Copy a picture of the screen to the Clipboard
Ctrl+Print Screen Copy a picture of the selected windows to the of a dialog box
Tab Move to the next option or option group of a dialog box
Shift+Tab Move to the previous option or option group of a dialog box

Introduction of C#

C# has been developed by Microsoft Corporation within the .NET team, and approved as a standard by ECMA and ISO/IEC later. C#, which is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure, is intended to be a simple, modern, object-oriented and common-purpose programming language

There are some fundamental elements that all C# executable programs have and that’s what the C# programmer need to understand. After reviewing the code in below, I’ll explain the basic concepts that will follow for all C# programs we will develop.

// Namespace Declaration
using System;

// Program start class
class Hello
{
// Main begins program execution.
static void Main()
{
// Write to console
Console.WriteLine(“Hello to All C# Programmers”);
}
}

First of all, we should talk about case-sensitive of C#. The word “Main” is not as same as its lower case spelling, “main”. They are different identifiers.

The namespace declaration, “using System;”, indicates that we are referencing the System namespace. Namespaces contain groups of code that can be called upon by C# programs. With the “using System;” declaration, we are telling the program that it can reference the code in the System namespace without pre-pending the word System to every reference.

The class declaration, class Hello, contains the data and method definitions that the program uses to execute. A class is one of a few different types of elements that the program can use to describe objects. This particular class has no data, but it does have one method. This method defines the behavior of this class.

The one method within the Hello class present what this class will do when executed. The method name, “Main”, is reserved for the starting point of a program. “Main” is often called the “entry point” and if we ever receive a compiler error message saying that it can’t find the entry point, it means that you tried to compile an executable program without a “Main” method. In addition, every method must have a return type. In this case it is void, which means that Main does not return a value. Every method also has a parameter list following its name with zero or more parameters between parenthesis. For simplicity, we did not add parameters to Main.

The Main method specifies its behavior with the Console.WriteLine(…) statement. Console is a class in the System namespace. WriteLine(…) is a method in the Console class. We use the “.”, dot, operator to separate subordinate program elements. Note that we could also write this statement as System.Console.WriteLine(…). This follows the pattern “namespace.class.method” as a fully qualified statement. Had we left out the using System declaration at the top of the program, it would have been mandatory for us to use the fully qualified form System.Console.WriteLine(…). This statement is what causes the string, “Hello to All C# Programmers” to print on the console screen.

Observe that comments are marked with “//”. These are single line comments, meaning that they are valid until the end-of-line. If you wish to span multiple lines with a comment, begin with “/*” and end with “*/”. Everything in between is part of the comment. Comments are ignored when your program compiles. They are there to document what your program does in plain English (or the native language you speak with every day).

All statements end with a “;”, semi-colon. Classes and methods begin with “{“, left curly brace, and end with a “}”, right curly brace. Any statements within and including “{” and “}” define a block. Blocks define scope (or lifetime and visibility) of program elements.

References:
C# Language Reference, Anders Hejlsberg and Scott Wiltamuth
ECMA C# and Common Language Infrastructure Standards

There are seven steps that are used in project estimation management.

Assigning Estimator

Project Manager should assign a member of a project team to be the Estimator. In general, the Project Manager, Business Analyst or Product Analyst of a project can be the Estimator.

Collecting Information

Estimator should collect all available documents and information of a proposed system. In Proposal and Initiation stage, Estimator should gather the client requirements and use them as an input to the subsequent procedures. In Design and Build stage, Estimator should collect the latest version of Requirement Specification and Design Specification before starting the estimation.

Estimating Project Size

Estimator should estimate the size of the code working and documentation working based on the business and technical requirements, and historical data. Estimator should estimate the size of code working in terms of intermediate measurement units required by different estimation methods. Different estimation methods use different intermediate measurement units to represent the size of code working. Besides code working size estimation, Estimator should estimate the size of documentation working. For documentation working, the size measurement unit is number of page.

Regardless of the method used, the Estimator shall document the estimation result and any assumptions made when perform the estimation.

Estimating Manpower Effort

Estimator should convert the intermediate measurement units to total project effort. Estimator should consider the software and programming language used, system architecture and the development lifecycle that a proposed system will be followed for design, develop, test, deploy and documentation. Besides, Estimator should also consider the effort used in the activities of a project. Estimator should use historical performance indicators to estimate the project effort when possible. If estimator has to change the estimation formula, the rationale and assumption of this change should be documented. In addition, Estimator should estimate the effort of each documentation working based on the estimation of number of pages and past experience of similar projects and record in the documentation working list work sheet.

In the Build stage, Estimator should create a Product Assignment Form for each code working and estimate the man days required to complete a PAF based on the complexity of a Work Product and the experience level of the programmer.

Estimating Resource & Schedule

Estimator should estimate the number of team members who will be working in a project and determine the duration each team member involves in.

Once manpower resource is determined, estimator should spread the resource measurement data into a calendar schedule. Estimator should decide the time interval of the calendar schedule depending on the duration of a project, expected completion date of all major milestones and other constraints and document them into the Resource & Manpower Cost Sheet and the Milestones Sheet. Estimator should record any assumptions used in estimating the resource and schedule. In addition, Estimator should determine computer resources and the schedule they are required. Computer resources include development workstations, system integration test servers, UAT servers, network bandwidth, load test servers etc. Estimator should fill in computer resource name, deadline, criticality, cost and other columns on the Critical Computer Resource Worksheet.

In the Build stage, Estimator should fill in estimated start and finish date of each PAF. Estimator should assign PAFs to each programmer in a project team with the consideration of the skill set of the programmer and the complexity of the product as described above.

Estimating Cost

Estimator should calculate manpower cost according to the daily rates of the corresponding position of team members. Estimator should document the cost in Resource and Manpower Cost Sheet of the corresponding estimation worksheet. Also, Estimator should then sum up total project cost that may include manpower cost, hardware and software purchases or rentals, training courses, and others.

Verify Estimation

Project Manager should verify the estimation made in different stages. After the estimation is verified, Project Manager should put it in a project plan for progress tracking. Throughout a project period, Project Manager should track the size, effort, schedule and cost of the project. If Project Manager finds that the actual size, effort, schedule or cost are deviated from the project plan and beyond the pre-defined tolerance level, appropriate action has to be taken in conjunction with the Project Planning and Tracking Process.

A project plan consists of two main elements that effort and time form the basis for tracking the progress of a project. Project manager requires estimate these two elements as accurate as possible. Therefore, estimation management process involves an analysis of a proposed or active project to produce a forecast of the project’s effort and time. Proper project planning and tracking is not possible without a sound and reliable estimate.

 

The estimation is one of the most challenging and important activities in software development. If the effort of a project is not estimated at the beginning, appropriate resources cannot be mobilized and deployed timely to the project. If the time is not estimated, it is impossible to perform critical path analysis during the project life cycle.

 

Not having a sound and reliable estimation can be just as bad as not having estimation at all.  Under-estimating project will lead to under-staffing it and deadlines will be missed.  On the other hand, over-estimating project will affect the firm’s sustainability as more than necessary resources are engaged in the project.

 

The following results are expected to be achieved by defining and implementing a good estimation management process:

  • Appropriate resources are being involved in a project at the right time
  •  An objective measurement is in place to reflect how well a project is progressing

Estimation Management includes the software development and implementation, system maintenance and consulting.

 

According to Capability Maturity Model (CMM), the management estimation should be done by two roles:

 

Roles

Responsibilities

Project Manager

·         Assign a project team member to be Estimator

·         Verify the estimation done by Estimator

Estimator

·         Collect and analyse all available information for estimation

·         Estimate the project size

·         Estimate the manpower and other resources

·         Estimate the schedule

·         Estimate the cost

 

Estimation management can be divided in several steps: assigning estimator, collecting information, estimating project size, estimating manpower effort, estimating resource & schedule, estimating cost and verify estimation

 

Next blog will discuss each step in detail.