(1) Adaptation to EU legislation of existing bilateral air services agreements between EU Member States and third countries – Horizontal Agreements. This involves amending about 1,500 bilateral agreements concluded by Member States with third countries to recognise the “community character” of our airlines. Member States must authorise any EU carrier to fly from its country to a third country. The joint efforts of the Commission and member states have already enabled the compliance of more than 1000 bilateral agreements with 122 countries. Horizontal agreements have been negotiated with some 50 countries that have amended all bilateral agreements between a third country and all EU Member States with which that country has bilateral agreements. The agreement also strengthens cooperation between the two sides in the following areas. The “open skies” agreement between the EU and the United States is an agreement on air services between the European Union (EU) and the United States. The agreement allows any Airline of the European Union and any airline of the United States to fly between every point of the European Union and any point of the United States. EU and US airlines are allowed to travel to another country after their first stop (fifth freedom). Since the EU is not considered a single zone within the meaning of the agreement, this in practice means that US airlines can fly between two points in the EU as long as this flight is the continuation of a flight that started in the US (. B for example, New York – London – Berlin). EU airlines can also fly between the US and third countries that are part of the common European airspace, such as Switzerland. EU and US airlines can fly all-cargo under the 7th Freedom Rights, which means that all-cargo flights by US airlines can be operated by an EU country to any other EU country and all-cargo flights can be operated by EU airlines between the US and any other country. Norway and Iceland joined the agreement from 2011 and their airlines enjoy the same rights as THE EU airlines.  In November 2018, the UK reached an individual open-sky agreement with the US, which will succeed the EU agreement after Brexit.  From a legal point of view, “open skies” cases meant that EU Member States could no longer act in isolation when negotiating international air services agreements. Negotiations on international air services are now conducted in close cooperation and coordination between the European Commission and EU Member States. New negotiations between the EU and the US began in 2008 and resulted in the signing of a second phase agreement in 2010. This protocol builds on the first agreement and covers additional investment and market access opportunities. In addition, the framework for cooperation in regulatory areas, such as security, social aspects and in particular the environment, will be strengthened, as both sides have agreed on a specific joint environmental declaration. (3) Conclude air agreements with key strategic partners – global agreements with global partners. As part of the agreement, London Heathrow was open to full competition. This is the end of the exclusive right granted to only two American airlines and two British airlines (introduced in 1977 under the Bermuda II Agreement and for which UK foreign traffic rights are in effect in the United States) to fly transatlantic flights from Heathrow. These four airlines were British Airways, Virgin Atlantic, United Airlines and American Airlines.
The initial agreement was signed on April 30, 2007 in Washington, D.C. The agreement entered into force on March 30, 2008. The second phase was signed in June 2010 and has been applied on an interim basis until all signatories are ratified.  The so-called “open skies” judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) of 5 November 2002 mark the beginning of a foreign policy of the